The doctor will perform assessments and tests to help him diagnose male infertility causes and choose the appropriate male infertility treatment. Here are some of the tests to diagnose fertility problems in males:
- Physical assessment and taking a medical history: The first step in determining the fertility problems in males is that the doctor will check the genitals for any abnormalities. The doctor will take your medical history for infections, surgeries, injuries, or possibly inherited genetic problems. He will also ask about sexual routines with your partner, alcohol use, if smoking, exposure to radiation or hazardous chemicals, and if you use illegal drugs.
- Semen Analysis: Male will collect semen through masturbation or using a condom during intercourse. The semen will be placed into a sterile container and will be submitted to the laboratory for analysis. The semen will be checked for sperm count (normal sperm count 15 million- >200 million sperm per ml), sperm morphology (any abnormality in the sperm shape), and movement (motility of sperm).
- Hormonal Tests: blood tests are done to check testosterone and other hormone levels that affect sexual development and production of sperms.
- Transrectal ultrasound: a small lubricated ultrasound probe is inserted through the rectum. The probe releases sound waves that create echoes to check the prostate, and any obstruction in the ejaculatory ducts and seminal vesicles.
- Testicular Biopsy: is done to obtain testicular samples by making a small incision in the scrotal skin and cutting out some testicular tissues using small scissors, or through a needle biopsy. The specimen will be sent to the laboratory for biopsy. The pathologist will check the sample under the microscope, and the results will be released after 2-4 days.
Treatments For Male Infertility
How to treat male infertility? There are several treatments on what helps male fertility. Once the doctor diagnosed what causes male infertility, the doctor will recommend any of the male infertility treatment:
- Surgical intervention: Surgery is one way on how to treat male infertility. Varicocelectomy is a surgical procedure that addresses fertility problems in males. This surgical procedure involves the removal of the large veins in the scrotum that affects the testicles and sperms. Reversal of vasectomy, to allow sperm to pass through the vas deferens. Testicular sperm extraction is a minor surgical procedure that obtains the sperm from the testis with the use of a fine needle. Local anesthesia will be given to prevent pain and discomfort during the procedure. The sperm collected from the procedure can be used in in-vitro fertilization (IVF). Transurethral Resection of the Ejaculatory Duct (TURED) involves using a cystoscope through the urethra until it reaches the ejaculatory ducts and makes small incisions to remove the blockage.
- Antibiotic therapy: Another male infertility treatment is using antibiotics to treat fertility problems in males due to infection. Infections that may affect fertility problems in males include urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted infections. This male infertility treatment may or may not restore fertility, depending on the severity of the infection and the damage it has caused to any of the reproductive organs of males.
- Hormonal treatments: One of the male infertility solutions are hormonal treatments. Clomiphene citrate/ Clomid acts on the pituitary gland to increase the production of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) to increase testosterone levels. Arimidex can be used in male breast cancer but it has been studied that it can help increase testosterone levels and regulates normal sperm count.
- Assisted reproductive technology (ART): is another method on how to treat male infertility. In-vitro fertilization (IVF) is one of the male infertility solutions that involves mixing the egg and the sperm in a petri dish at the laboratory. When sperm is directly injected into the egg in the petri dish at the laboratory, this technique is known as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).
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