What is Hypospadias-Causes, Diagnosis and Treatments


Hypospadias is one of the rare conditions that take place among men. As it’s common to have a penis that functions and looks well, in hypospadias, the case is different. Hypospadias is a condition in which not only the penis doesn’t work well, it also doesn’t appear normally. Read on to find more about hypospadias, its diagnosis, treatment & complication.

What is Hypospadias?

Hypospadias is a condition in men where the meatus isn’t present at the tip of the penis. Since the penis is assigned with the task to carry urine and sperm out of the body. It contains a tube called the urethra that carries out sperm and urine from the body through the penis. The opening of the penis from outside is called “meatus.” With the help of meatus that is present at the tip of the head, ejection of urine and sperm is possible.

In hypospadias, the opening (meatus) is not present on the tip of the penis. Instead, the hole might be present along the underside of the penis. The meatus is not found at its natural location. You might find the hole in the middle of the penile shape or the base of the penis, or even within the scrotum area. 

Men (80%) exhibiting such health conditions suffer from distal hypospadias. It is also possible in this case (15%) to see their penises curved downward slightly, which is a condition called chordee. Hypospadias is a common birth defect that’s found in every 1 out of 200 boys. 

What are the Hypospadias types?

The different types of hypospadias depend on the location of the meatus presence. Here are the most common ones:

Subcoronal: Opening is somewhere near the head.

Penoscrotal: Opening is located where the penis & scrotum meet.

Midshaft: Opening is present along the shaft

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What are Hypospadias causes?

The foremost causes of hypospadias take place in times of pregnancy. The development of the penis in the womb takes about 9 to 12 weeks. In the similar time, the male hormone also informs the body to form urethra and foreskin. Hence hypospadias is suspected to be caused by hormones.

Risk factors of Hypospadias

According to the CDC researchers, here are the following risk factors for pregnant women that leads to a child with hypospadias: 

Obesity & Older Age: Pregnant women who are aged about 35 years or more and obese have higher chances of having a child with hypospadias.

Hormones: Exposure to progestins which is natural progesterone and synthetic progesterone and also a testosterone derivative that causes biological changes during the early stage of pregnancy increases the chance of hypospadias. 

Fertility treatments: Intake of hormonal medications such as clomiphene or going through surgical procedures to help with pregnancy causes a higher chance of developing a kid with hypospadias.

What are the steps of Hypospadias diagnosis?

Since Hypospadias is a birth defect, you can easily notice at birth. You’ll notice that not only the meatus is present on the incorrect place, but the foreskin would also be formed on its underside. Which ultimately leaves the tips of the penis exposed. Foreskin informs a lot about the formation of hypospadias which will prompt you to seek immediate medical help. However, some infants are also born with abnormal foreskin but with meatus present in the correct place. Or in some cases, a normal foreskin would hide an abnormal meatus. So there’s no guarantee of the state of foreskin but in most cases, it does work well as a significant indicator. About 8 in 100 boys with hypospadias are born with testicles that haven’t fully dropped in the scrotum.

What are the Hypospadias treatment methods?

The main treatment of hypospadias is surgical operations. This common condition has been corrected by surgeons across the globe since the late 1800s. There have been more than 200 types of surgery that have been described for fixing hypospadias. Fortunately, with the advancement in technology and medical science, surgeons have narrowed it down to only a handful of techniques that help significantly:

In the surgical procedure of hypospadias, the objective is to form a normal and straight penis with a urinary tube that ends at the tip. The major step that’s involved in the procedure is straightening the penile shaft. After that, making the urinary channel and directing the hole (meatus) in the head of the penis. While ending with circumcising or reconstructing the foreskin. 

The surgical treatment of hypospadias often takes about 90 minutes to 3 hours on the same day. In some cases, it may take more time if it’s performed in different stages. Which mostly takes place in the cases with severe chordee. Where the urologist takes time to straighten the penis before creating a urinary channel. Hypospadias surgery is mostly done in children aged between 6 to 12 months. Though it is also possible with kids of any age and adults. 

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What are the complications of Hypospadias?

The chances of complications in hypospadias are less than 1 out of 10. Complications are most likely to happen after proximal correction i.e where the meatus is present within the scrotum. The most common one after the surgery is the formation of a hole called fistula occurring in another place in the penis. Which happens from a new path forming from the urethra to the skin. 

Another problem considered is the formation of scars in the urinary tube or at the urethral opening. That can cause problems while passing urine. Kids can experience urine leaking from another hole or less urinary stream from the hypospadias repair. You must immediately seek medical help. 

You are most likely to experience any kind of complication in the first few months after surgery. But fistulas can be difficult to find even after many years of birth. You can still fix the complications that come along with the surgery but after about 6 months of healing from first operations.  

Though it’s quite difficult to perform another surgery on such a delicate part. But there’s a sense of relief which makes it possible. In cases of unhealthy scars, its tissue can be replaced with new tissues from another part of the body, most likely from the cheeks. It can help to make the urinary tract look normal and working well. 

Book an appointment for Hypospadias Repair at Urofertility in Delhi.