Prostate Cancer

Overview

Prostate cancer is a type of cancer that forms in the prostate gland.

Erectile Dysfunction

Prostate Cancer Signs

Here are some prostate cancer signs that a person could experience:

  • Urinary frequency especially at night
  • Blood in the urine (Hematuria)
  • Blood in semen
  • Pain upon urination
  • Difficulty to start in urination
  • Pain and discomfort upon sitting- usually manifests when the prostate is enlarged
  • Difficulty in achieving and maintaining an erection

Prostate Cancer Causes

Up to now, there is no definitive reason for prostate cancer cause.  Physicians know that prostate cancer arises from abnormal cells. The abnormal cells continue to grow and reproduce eventually forming a tumor that spreads to adjacent tissues, lymph nodes, and other parts of the body.

Here are some risk factors that could contribute to the development of prostate cancer:

  • Age: as age increases, it increases the risk of having cancer of the prostate
  • Black men: are more prone to have cancer of the prostate than any other race, which are more advance and aggressive type
  • Family history of prostate cancer
  • Smoking
  • Obesity
  • Inflammation of the prostate

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How many types of prostate cancer are there?

Adenocarcinoma:

More than 95% of prostate cancer is adenocarcinoma

  • Acinar adenocarcinoma: Cancer cells start from acini cells, which lines the prostate; increases PSA levels; most common type of adenocarcinoma
  • Ductal Adenocarcinoma: Cancer cells develop from the cells lining prostate tubes and ducts; hard to detect because it does not increase PSA levels; spreads faster compared to Acinar adenocarcinoma
Small Cell Carcinoma:

Very aggressive and does not affect PSA levels; a type of neuroendocrine cancer

Transitional Cell Carcinoma or Urothelial Cancer:

Often starts in the urethra and bladder (primary tumors) and then spreads to the prostate gland

Squamous Cell Carcinoma:

Very rare and very aggressive type of prostate cancer; starts at the flat cells that cover the prostate gland

Prostate Cancer Stages

How many stages of prostate cancer are there? There are four prostate cancer stages, which are the following:

Stage I
  • Cancer cells are growing slowly
  • The tumor cannot be felt
  • PSA levels: low
  • Well-differentiated cancer cells
Stage II
  • A tumor is confined in the prostate gland
  • Prostate cancer tumor is a small but high risk for growing and spreading
  • PSA levels: low-medium
Stage III
  • PSA levels: high
  • Prostate tumor is growing
  • Prostate cancer has reached adjacent tissues

Stage IV

  • Prostate cancer has spread to other parts of the body such as lungs or bones

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